Congenital dislocation of the hip

Congenital hip dyslocation is the most frequent deformity of the musculoskeletal system. Its etiology is still unknown. Only by early recognition of developmental disorders in the hip joint is it possible to apply the most efficient prophylactic and therapeutic measures that will lead to normal growth and development of the hip joint. This deformity can be described as a proteic condition which can result in micro-and macroscopic pathological changes during intrauterine, perinatal and neonatal development as well during childhood. Because of this, it is better to use the term developmental hip disorder or developmemental hip dysplasia. The incidence of this deformity is very high and ranges from 2- 4,5 per 100 live births. Since the introduction of ultrasound diagnostics the incidence has risen to 12 per 100 live births.
The diagnostic procedures used nowdays are based upon clinical examination, ultrasound and x-ray examination of both hips in newborns and infants. In the first three months of life, x- ray of hips does not give complete information regarding development, and afterwards it is avoided because of its harmful effects. Regardless of the knowledge, experience and skill of the examiner, it is still impossible to discover all cases of disorders of hip development using only clinical examination, but it still has a place in the judgement of therapeutic procedures.
The application of ultrasound has opened a new approach to the diagnostics of congenital hip dysplasia, and recognition of all its forms immediately after birth. Early hip sonography makes it possible to discover congenital hip dysplasia in maternitiy hospitals, and start early treatment to prevent degenerative changes in the hip joint.
Category: Clinical observations - professional paper
Volume: Vol. 43, No 1, january - march 1999
Authors: J. Vrdoljak
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