Localized tenosynovial gigantocellular tumor of the ankle in an adolescent: case report and literature review

Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a rare, benign monoarticular disease that affects the synovial lining of joint, tendon or bursa. We distinguish two forms of the disease, localized and diffuse forms, both of which are histologically identical. The incidence rate of the localized form of TGCT (LTGCT) is 10 cases per million people, of which about 5% of all cases occur in the ankle. We present a rare case of LTGCT in the anterior part of the ankle in an adolescent, which was manifested by swelling and occasional pain, especially during sports activities. On the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a heterogeneously structured, well encapsulated tumor was visible in the anterior part of the ankle. In addition to the painless swelling in the anterior part of the ankle, the physical examination revealed a deficit of dorsiflexion of the foot. The operation was performed arthroscopically but the tumor could not be removed in a single piece due to its size, so it was removed in multiple pieces. Histopathological analysis confirmed that the tumor was TGCT. During the two-year follow-up period, the patient did not have problems with the operated ankle and no recurrence of the disease was observed on control MRIs. TGCT should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis, especially when pain and swelling of the ankle occur without injury. Arthroscopic surgery is a safe and effective method of treatment if it is performed by an experienced surgeon backed by a well- trained team. The choice of the type of surgical treatment should be determined depending on the anatomical position of the for- mation in the joint and the surgeon’s assessment and preference.
Category: Case report
Volume: Vol. 66, No 3-4, july-december 2022
Authors: Damjan Dimnjaković, Tin Karakaš, Ivan Bojanić
Reference work: Paediatr Croat. 2022;66:89-94
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13112/PC.2022.15

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